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亚行支持中国制定综合防洪战略



 

  亚洲开发银行(亚行)将提供50万美元的技术援助赠款,支持中国制定旨在防御洪涝灾害的洪水综合管理战略,减少洪水的破坏性影响。

  在有史料记载的2000多年中,中国经历了1000多次洪灾。1931年,长江遭遇洪水,灾民人数达2850万,死亡人数高达14万5000多人。更近的例子在1998年,长江和松花江-辽河流域的洪水灾害造成了3500人死亡和大约300亿美元的经济损失。

  在此类灾难到来时,社会最贫困的阶层所面临的风险往往最大。在农村,贫困人口经常生活在缺乏防洪措施或无法获得灌溉的地区。在城市,贫困人口往往居住在地势低洼、排水不畅、极易受水灾影响的地区。

  1998年特大洪水之后,中国政府宣布了向自然资源管理转移的政策,以此作为长期、全面治理洪泛区的一种措施。该政策标志着中国从依赖以减小洪水破坏为目的的工程措施转向协调使用工程措施和非工程措施。

  防洪堤等工程措施有助于抵挡洪水,而非工程措施包括多项内容,如有助于人们远离洪水的土地利用方式,为了减少人民财产遭受威胁和损失而对开发和建设活动进行控制的相关举措,为应对特大洪水而建立的防洪应急措施,以及水灾保险机制等。

  亚行高级项目专家崔京爱女士(KyeongAe Choe)指出,“紧急防洪需要工程措施,但从长期角度看,各种减洪措施和洪泛区治理措施的协调应用对减少洪水风险洪水破坏则最为有效。”

  “因此,政府必须从单纯的防洪转向采取有助于促进洪区可持续经济增长和社会发展的综合治洪战略。”

  本技术援助项目将为减少洪灾和开展洪泛区治理制定框架,强调对工程措施和非工程措施进行协调应用。

  本技术援助项目还将建议为减少洪灾和开展洪泛区治理制定行动计划,为政策制定者和地方政府官员编写关于有效治洪的手册。

  本技术援助项目将由水利部负责实施。项目期12个月,计划于2004年9月启动。项目总成本为62.5万美元,其中的 12.5万美元由中国政府提供。

 

原文如下:

Integrated Strategy to Help Protect PRC from Destructive Floods

MANILA, PHILIPPINES (13 July 2004) - ADB will help protect the People's Republic of China (PRC) from the destructive effects of floods by developing an integrated flood mitigation and flood management strategy, through a technical assistance (TA) grant approved for US$500,000.

The PRC has experienced more than 1,000 flood disasters in 2,000 years of recorded history. The Yangtze River floods of 1931 affected 28.5 million people and killed 145,000. More recently, in 1998, flooding of the Yangtze and Songhua-Liao river basins killed 3,500, with monetary losses estimated at $30 billion.

The poorest members of society are most at risk from such calamities. In rural areas the poor often live in areas without adequate protection from floods or without access to irrigation. In urban locations the poor tend to live in low-lying poorly drained areas susceptible to flooding.

In the wake of the 1998 flood, the Government announced a policy that moves toward natural resource management as a long-term, holistic way of flood plain management. It signals a shift from dependence on structural measures for reducing flood damage to a balanced approach using both structural and nonstructural measures.

Structural measures, such as dikes, keep floodwaters away from people, while nonstructural measures comprise land-use to keep people away from floodwaters, development and building controls to limit the hazard and damage to property, flood emergency measures to deal with overwhelming floods, and flood insurance mechanisms.

"Structural measures are required for immediate protection, but balancing flood mitigation and floodplains management are most effective in reducing flood risk and flood damage in the long run," says KyeongAe Choe, an ADB Senior Project Specialist.

"The Government therefore has to move from mere flood control to adopting an integrated flood management strategy that will promote the sustainable economic growth and social development of flood-prone areas."

The TA will draw up a framework for flood mitigation and floodplains management, balancing structural and nonstructural measures.

It will also recommend action plans to integrate flood mitigation and floodplains management, producing a handbook on effective flood management for policymakers and local government officials.

The Ministry of Water Resources will execute the TA, which will be carried out over 12 months beginning September 2004. The Government is contributing $125,000 toward the TA's total cost of $625,000.

 


    作者:高立洪
直译